A mistake by a judge in procedure or in substantive law, during a hearing, upon petitions or motions, denial of rights, during the conduct of a trial (either granting or denying objections), on approving or denying jury instructions, on a judgment not supported by facts or applicable law or any other step in the judicial process. if a majority of an appeals court finds an error or errors which affect the result, or a denial of fundamental rights such as due process, the higher court will reverse the lower court’s error in whole or in part (the entire judgment or a part of it), and remand (send it back) with instructions to the lower court. appeals courts often find errors which have no prejudicial effect on the rights of a party and are thus harmless error.
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